بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
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Man is absolutely the most favoured creature; even to the point that it was said - which is true - that he is favoured over the angels. The preference of man lies in his intellect (‘aql). The intellect (‘aql) of man is what raised his status, and made him superior to all creatures. Therefore, it is necessary to understand this intellect (‘aql), and accordingly it is necessary to know what is thinking (at-tafkeer), and what is the method of thinking? (Tareeqat ut-tafkeer). This is because this reality designated as thinking (at-tafkeer) is what gives the intellect its value, and what brings those elaborate fruits, with which life revives and man revives. The whole universe, including everything, even the inanimate beings, plants and animals, revive.
Sciences (‘uloom), arts (funoon), literature (adaab), philosophy (falsafah), jurisprudence (fiqh), language (lughah) and knowledge (ma'rifah), are themselves the output of the mind (‘aql), and consequently the output of thinking (at-tafkeer). Therefore, it is necessary for the sake of man, life and the whole universe, that the reality of the mind (‘aql) is comprehended, and the reality of thinking (at-tafkeer) and the method of thinking (Tareeqat ut-tafkeer) be comprehended accordingly.
What occurs in the thinking process, i.e. the rational process (al- 'amaliyyah al-'aqliyyah) is sensation (iHsas) and not reflection (ini'kas). This is because there is no reflection between matter (tangible things) and the brain, so the brain is not reflected on the matter and the matter is not reflected on the brain. Reflection needs the presence of reflectivity in the tangible object, which reflects things such as the mirror and light.
This capacity does not exist, either in the brain or in the object. Therefore, there is no reflection between the matter/tangible thing and the brain at all, because the matter is neither reflected on the brain nor it is transferred to it. What is actually transferred to the brain is the sensation of the matter by the senses. In other words the matter is perceived by the senses - anyone of them - and this sensation is carried to the brain that makes its judgment (Hukm) on it. Transferring the sensation of the matter to the brain is not a reflection on the brain of the matter; it is rather sensing of the matter. In this regard, there is no difference between the eye and the other senses. So sensation results from touching, smelling, tasting, hearing just as it results from seeing. Thus what occurs from the objects is not reflection on the brain, rather perception of them. Man perceives the objects with his five senses, and objects are not reflected on his brain.