بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
The Reasons for the Establishment of Hizb ut Tahrir
Hizb ut Tahrir was established in response to the saying of Allah (swt),
[وَلْتَكُن مِّنكُمْ أُمَّةٌ يَدْعُونَ إِلَى ٱلْخَيْرِ وَيَأْمُرُونَ بِٱلْمَعْرُوفِ وَيَنْهَوْنَ عَنِ ٱلْمُنكَرِ ۚوَأُو۟لَٰٓئِكَ هُمُ ٱلْمُفْلِحُونَ]
“Let there be among you a group that invites to the good, orders what is right and forbids what is evil, and they are those who are successful” [TMQ 3:104]
Its purpose was to revive the Islamic Ummah from the severe decline that it had reached, and to liberate it from the thoughts, systems and laws of Kufr, as well as the domination and influence of the Kufr states. It also aims to restore the Islamic Khilafah (Caliphate) State so that the ruling by what Allah (swt) revealed returns.
The Legal Obligation of Establishing Political Parties
(a) The establishment of the Party in response to the saying of Allah (swt), “Let there be among you a group ...” is because Allah (swt) has ordered the Muslims in this verse that there must be among them a structured group which should perform two duties: Firstly, to invite to the good, i.e. to invite to Islam; and secondly, to order what is right and forbid what is evil.
This order to establish a structured group is a request. However, there is a conjunction to the effect that this is a decisive request (command), because the work of the structured group, as defined in the above verse (inviting to Islam, ordering what is right and forbidding what is evil), is an obligation upon Muslims; they have to perform it as confirmed in many verses of the Qur’an and the ahadith of the Messenger of Allah (saw) which indicate that.
The Messenger of Allah (saw) said,
«وَالَّذِي نَفْسِي بِيَدِهِ لَتَأْمُرُنَّ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَلَتَنْهَوُنَّ عَنِ الْمُنْكَرِ أَوْ لَيُوشِكَنَّ اللَّهُ أَنْ يَبْعَثَ عَلَيْكُمْ عِقَابًا مِنْهُ ثُمَّ تَدْعُونَهُ فَلاَ يُسْتَجَابُ لَكُمْ»
“By Him in Whose hand is my soul, you must order what is right and forbid what is evil, otherwise Allah will be about to send His punishment upon you. And then if you pray to Him (to ask Him), He would not answer you.”
This hadith of the Messenger of Allah (saw) is a conjunction showing that the request (in the above verse) is decisive, and the order is an obligation.
(b) The fact that this structured group is a political party is understood by the verse when it asks the Muslims to form from themselves a group, and that the work of this group is defined to be inviting to Islam, ordering what is right, and forbidding what is evil.
Carrying out the duty of ordering what is right and forbid what is evil includes ordering the rulers to do what is right and forbidding them from what is evil. This aspect, which means taking the rulers to task and giving them advice is most important, and this work is political; it is one of the most important political actions and one of the main tasks of political parties. The verse then indicates the obligation of establishing political parties. However, the verse imposes the constraint that these political parties should be Islamic, because the task of these parties, as defined by the verse is inviting to Islam, ordering what is right and forbidding what is evil, according to the laws of Islam, which cannot be performed except by the groups and parties that are Islamic.
An Islamic party is that which is established on the Islamic ‘aqeedah, adopts the Islamic thoughts, laws and solutions, and follows the method of the Messenger of Allah (saw). Therefore, it is not allowed for Muslims to form groups on a basis other than Islam as a thought and method, because Allah (swt) has ordered them not to do this, and because Islam is the only correct ideology in the world. It is a universal ideology that agrees with human nature, and deals with human beings as human beings. So Islam deals with man’s instincts and organic needs, and organises them and their satisfaction correctly, without suppressing them or allowing them free reign, or allowing one instinct to overcome another. In sum, it is a comprehensive ideology which organises life’s affairs.
(c) Allah (swt) has made it imperative for Muslims to restrict themselves only to Islam and its laws, whether organising their relationship with their Creator, such as the rules of beliefs and ritual worships, or with themselves, such as the rules of morals, food and dress or with others such as the rules of transactions and legislation.
Allah (swt) has also obliged Muslims to implement Islam throughout all of life’s affairs, to rule with Islam and to make their constitution and their various laws on the basis of Shari’ah rules which are derived from the Book of Allah (swt) and the Sunnah of His Messenger (saw). Allah (swt) says,
[فَٱحْكُم بَيْنَهُم بِمَآ أَنزَلَ ٱللَّهُ ۖوَلَا تَتَّبِعْ أَهْوَآءَهُمْ عَمَّا جَآءَكَ مِنَ ٱلْحَق]
“And rule between them by what Allah has revealed, and do not follow their whims away from the Truth which came to you.” [TMQ 5:48]
[وَأَنِ ٱحْكُم بَيْنَهُم بِمَآ أَنزَلَ ٱللَّهُ وَلَا تَتَّبِعْ أَهْوَآءَهُمْ وَٱحْذَرْهُمْ أَن يَفْتِنُوكَ عَنۢ بَعْضِ مَآ أَنزَلَ ٱللَّهُ إِلَيْكَ ۖ]
“And rule between them by what Allah has revealed, and do not follow their whims, and beware that they tempt you away from even some part of what Allah has revealed to you.” [TMQ 5:49]
Allah (swt) considered not ruling by Islam as an act of Kufr. Allah (swt) says,
[وَمَن لَّمْ يَحْكُم بِمَآ أَنزَلَ ٱللَّهُ فَأُو۟لَٰٓئِكَ هُمُ ٱلْكَٰفِرُونَ]
“And those who do not rule by what Allah has revealed, they are disbelievers.” [TMQ 5:44]
Ideologies other than Islam, like Capitalism and Communism (which includes Socialism), are corrupt ideologies which contradict human nature and are man-made. Their corruption has become evident, their defects apparent, and they contradict Islam and its laws, so their adoption is prohibited. Embracing and calling for them is prohibited and to establish groups on their basis is also prohibited. Therefore, when Muslims establish groups it must be on the basis of Islam alone as a thought and method, and it is prohibited for Muslims to establish groups on the basis of Capitalism, Communism, Socialism, Nationalism, Patriotism, Sectarianism or Freemasonry. Thus, it is prohibited for Muslims to establish Communist, Socialist, Capitalist, Nationalist, Patriotic, Sectarian or Masonic parties or to associate themselves with such parties or to promote them, since they are Kufr parties which call for Kufr. Allah (swt) says,
[وَمَن يَبْتَغِ غَيْرَ ٱلْإِسْلَٰمِ دِينًا فَلَن يُقْبَلَ مِنْهُ وَهُوَ فِى ٱلْـَٔاخِرَةِ مِنَ ٱلْخَٰسِرِينَ]
“And whosoever seeks a deen other than Islam, it will never be accepted from him, and in the hereafter he shall be one of the losers.” [TMQ 3:85]
And the above verse states, “invites to the good” [TMQ 3:104] i.e. to Islam.
And the Messenger of Allah (saw) said, »مَنْ أَحْدَثَ فِي أَمْرِنَا هَذَا مَا لَيْسَ مِنْهُ فَهُوَ رَدٌّ« “Whosoever does an action which is not according to our order (i.e. Islam), it is rejected.”
And he (saw) said, »لَيْسَ مِنَّا مَنْ دَعَا إِلَى عَصَبِيَّةٍ« “Whosoever calls for ‘asabiyyah (tribalism) is not one of us.”
(d) The revival of the Islamic Ummah from the decline that she has reached, and her liberation from Kufr thoughts, systems and laws, and from the domination and influence of the Kufr states - all this must be achieved by raising her intellectually through the fundamental and comprehensive change of the thoughts and concepts that led to her decline and by bringing about within her the Islamic thoughts and concepts, and by shaping her attitude towards life solely according to the thoughts and laws of Islam.
The matter that led to this shocking decline, which does not befit her, is the severe weakness that occurred in the minds of the Muslims in their understanding and performance of Islam. This was due to a number of factors that obscured the thought and method of Islam from the time of the 2nd century after hijrah until now. These obscuring factors resulted from many things, the most prominent of them being:
1. The influx of Hindu, Persian and Greek philosophies, and the endeavours of some Muslim philosophers to reconcile these philosophies with Islam despite the complete contradiction between them.
2. The scheming of malicious people against Islam who promoted certain thoughts and rules that are not from Islam, in order to defame it and deviate Muslims away from it.
3. The negligence in using the Arabic language in understanding and delivering Islam, and its detachment from Islam in the 7th century AH, in spite of the fact that Islam cannot be understood without the Arabic language. Moreover, the deduction of new laws for new situations and issues through ijtihad cannot be achieved without the Arabic language.
The missionary, cultural and then the political invasion from the time of the 17th century CE launched by the Western Kufr states who wanted to distort the Muslims’ understanding of Islam and distance them from it, for the purpose of demolishing it.
(e) A number of attempts and movements, Islamic as well as non-Islamic, arose in order to revive the Muslims, but all of them failed. They could neither revive the Muslims nor stop their severe decline. The cause of the failure of these attempts and the groups which were established to revive Muslims with Islam was due to a variety of reasons; these were as follows:
1. The absence of an accurate understanding of the Islamic thought in those people who took up the duty of reviving the Muslims. This is because they were influenced by certain obscuring factors. They used to call for Islam in a general undefined manner, without defining the thoughts and rules with which they sought to revive the Muslims, to solve their problems, and to apply. This was because of the lack of clarity of these thoughts and laws in their minds. They made the situation the source of their thinking, from which their thought was produced, and they tried to interpret Islam and explain it using meanings which its texts forbid. They did so as to agree with the existing situation even though it contradicted Islam. They did not make the situation the subject of their thought so as to change it according to Islam and its laws. Instead, they called for liberty and democracy, and the Capitalist and Socialist systems and understood them to be from Islam, although they totally contradict with it.
2. The absence of an accurate and clearly defined method by which the Islamic thoughts and laws are implemented. The groups and individuals conveyed the Islamic idea in an improvised way and in a manner which was surrounded with ambiguity. They visualised the revival of Islam through the building of mosques and publishing of books, or by establishment of welfare and co-operative organisations, or by moral education and reformation of individuals; whilst ignoring the corruption of the society and the domination of Kufr thoughts, laws and systems upon it. They thought that the reformation of society is achieved by reforming its individuals, despite the fact that its reformation is only achieved by reforming its thoughts, emotions and systems, which would lead to the reformation of the individual members of the society, because society is not composed of a set of individuals alone, but is comprised of individuals and relationships, i.e. individuals, thoughts, emotions and systems. This was exactly the way that the Messenger of Allah (saw) worked to change the jahili society into an Islamic society. He started work to change the existing creeds to the thoughts of the Islamic ‘aqeedah, and to change jahili thoughts, concepts and traditions to Islamic thoughts, concepts and laws, and hence change the people’s emotions from attachment to jahili creeds, thoughts and traditions to attachment with the Islamic ‘aqeedah and with the thoughts of Islam and its laws. This occurred until Allah (swt) facilitated to him the transformation of the society in Madinah such that the great mass of the population in Madinah came to embrace the creed of Islam and adopt its thoughts, concepts and rules. Then the Messenger of Allah (saw) and his Companions migrated to Madinah after concluding the second pledge of ‘Aqabah, whereupon he began to apply the rules of Islam and by this he established the Islamic society.
Other movements carried the Islamic thought by material means and endorsed the taking up of arms. They, however, failed to differentiate between Dar al-Islam and Dar al-Kufr. They also did not understand the difference between the manner of conveying the da’wah as opposed to changing the evil within these two different situations. Today we live within Dar al-Kufr because everywhere around us the rules of Kufr are applied, and in this respect society resembles Makkah at the time when the Messenger of Allah (saw) was sent by Allah (swt). Therefore, conveying the call to Islam in this situation must be performed through da’wah and political action and not by material means. This is in accordance with how the Messenger of Allah (saw) conveyed the da’wah in Makkah, where he restricted his work to the da’wah to Islam and did not resort to material means. The aim in the current situation is not to change a ruler who rules by Kufr in Dar al-Islam; the aim is rather to change the whole of Dar al-Kufr, including its thoughts and systems. Its change is achieved by changing the thoughts, emotions and systems prevailing in it, as the Messenger of Allah (saw) did in Makkah.
If in Dar al-Islam, which is ruled according to the revelation of Allah (swt), its ruler ruled with clear Kufr then the Muslims must forbid it, so that he reverts back to ruling according to Islam. In case he does not repent, it becomes imperative upon the Muslims to take up arms against him to force him to revert to ruling with the revelation of Allah (swt). This is the correct way described in the hadith narrated by ‘Ubada ibn as-Samit, “...and that you must not dispute the rulers’ right to govern until you see clear (open) disbelief upon which you have proof from Allah.” And it is explained in the hadith narrated by ‘Auf ibn Malik in Imam Muslim’s book that the Messenger of Allah (saw) was asked by his Companions, “Should we not face them (the rulers) with the sword?” The Messenger of Allah replied, “No, so long as they establish salah amongst you.” The establishment of salah in this hadith is in fact an indication of ruling by Islam. These two ahadith are concerned with the taking to task of the Muslim ruler in Dar al-Islam, demonstrating the manner of his questioning and the circumstances surrounding the use of material power to oppose the emergence of clear (open) Kufr in Dar al-Islam when previously it was not there.
(f) As for the need to work to restore the Khilafah "Caliphate" State, and thereby to rule by what Allah (swt) has revealed, this is because Allah (swt) has obliged Muslims to restrict themselves to all the rules of the Shari’ah, and He (swt) made it obligatory upon them to govern with His (swt) revelation. This would not be possible unless there exists an Islamic State and a Khaleefah who applies Islam upon the people.
Since the Khilafah (Caliphate) was demolished after the First World War, Muslims have been living without an Islamic State and without an Islamic rule. Therefore, the work for the restoration of the Khilafah, as well as the rule by what Allah (swt) has revealed is a decisive obligation that Islam imposes upon all Muslims. It is an unavoidable obligation (with no option, or complacency). Any neglect in performing this duty is a great sin, for the committing of which Allah (swt) punishes severely. The Messenger of Allah (saw) said,
«وَمَنْ مَاتَ وَلَيْسَ فِي عُنُقِهِ بَيْعَةٌ، مَاتَ مِيتَةً جَاهِلِيَّةً»
“Whosoever dies without having a bay’ah (pledge of allegiance to the Khaleefah) upon his neck, dies a death of jahiliyyah.”
And a failure to observe this duty is a negligence of one of the most important commands of Islam, since the execution of Islam depends upon this command. Even establishing Islam in the course of life depends upon it, and, ‘Whatever is necessary to accomplish an obligation is itself an obligation.’
Therefore Hizb ut-Tahrir was established and its formation was based on the Islamic ‘aqeedah. It adopted those concepts and rules of Islam that are required to implement its aim. It has avoided the shortcomings and the causes that have led to the failure of the movements that were established to revive Muslims by Islam. The Party understood intellectually and profoundly the idea and method from the Qur’an, Sunnah, Ijma’ of the Sahabah and Qiyas (analogy). It took the situation as a subject for its thought so as to change it according to the rules of Islam. It committed itself with the method of the Messenger of Allah (saw) in his work to convey the da’wah in Makkah till he established the State in Madinah. The Party made the ‘aqeedah, its thoughts and laws the affiliation that binds together its members.
It therefore deserves that the Ummah embraces it and proceeds with it; in fact the Ummah must embrace it and proceed with it because it is the only party that digests its idea, foresees its method, understands its issue, and commits itself to follow the seerah of the Messenger of Allah (saw) without any deviation from it, and without letting anything dissuade it from achieving its aim.