بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
بسم الله الرحمن الؤحيم
Tafseer Al-Baqarah 2: 111-113
From the Book, Introduction to the Tafseer of the Quran, by the Ameer of Hizb ut Tahrir, the eminent jurist and statesman, Sheikh Ata Bin Khalil Abu Al-Rashtah
وَقَالُوا لَنْ يَدْخُلَ الْجَنَّةَ إِلاَّ مَنْ كَانَ هُودًا أَوْ نَصَارَى تِلْكَ أَمَانِيُّهُمْ قُلْ هَاتُوا بُرْهَانَكُمْ إِنْ كُنتُمْ صَادِقِين - بَلَى مَنْ أَسْلَمَ وَجْهَهُ لِلَّهِ وَهُوَ مُحْسِنٌ فَلَهُ أَجْرُهُ عِنْدَ رَبِّهِ وَلاَ خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلاَ هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ -وَقَالَتْ الْيَهُودُ لَيْسَتْ النَّصَارَى عَلَى شَيْءٍ وَقَالَتْ النَّصَارَى لَيْسَتْ الْيَهُودُ عَلَى شَيْءٍ وَهُمْ يَتْلُونَ الْكِتَابَ كَذَلِكَ قَالَ الَّذِينَ لاَ يَعْلَمُونَ مِثْلَ قَوْلِهِمْ فَاللَّهُ يَحْكُمُ بَيْنَهُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ فِيمَا كَانُوا فِيهِ يَخْتَلِفُونَ
"And they say, "None shall enter Paradise unless he be a Jew or a Christian.'' These are their own desires. Say (O Muhammad), "Produce your Burhan if you are truthful.'' Yes! But whoever submits his face (himself) to Allah (i.e. follows Allah's religion of Islamic Monotheism) and he is a Muhsin then his reward is with his Lord (Allah), on them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve. The Jews said that the Christians follow nothing (i.e. are not on the right religion); and the Christians said that the Jews follow nothing (i.e. are not on the right religion); though they both recite the Scripture. Like unto their word, said those (the pagans) who know not. Allah will judge between them on the Day of Resurrection about that wherein they have been differing." [Surah Al-Baqarah 111-113]
Allah (swt) specifies in these verses the following:
1. The Jews stated that none other than them will enter Paradise, and Christians stating likewise that none other than them will enter Paradise. Allah (swt) tells us that what they are saying is invalid and wishful thinking. It was when they wished the Messenger would be from them and not from the others. When they wished that the believers apostatized out of hatred and jealousy, then Allah (swt) informed them they are liars in those aspirations and if they were honest let them bring evidence.
Although, this is in a form of a question; [قُلْ هَاتُوا بُرْهَانَكُمْ إِنْ كُنتُمْ صَادِقِين] "Produce your Burhan if you are truthful," it is in the sense of disbelief from Allah of their speech. They will not be able to come with any evidences and this is clear from the following verse that begins with [بَلَى مَنْ أَسْلَمَ] "Yes! But whoever submits" as we shall explain, Insha'Allah.
2. Allah (swt) proves in this verse the invalidity of their saying and He (swt) returns it back to them. Paradise is neither for the Jews nor Christians, but for those who believe, are loyal and submit themselves to Allah (swt). The Almighty confirms what came by the Messenger of Allah (saw); the Paradise is for those, they shall not fear nor shall they grieve.
[أَسْلَمَ] "Submits." The origin of Islam in the language is submission to Allah Almighty. And from the Shariah perspective, it means the Deen which was revealed to Muhammad (saw).
[إِنَّ الدِّينَ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ الإِسْلاَمُ]
"Indeed the only Deen before Allah is Islam" [Surah Aali-Imran 3:19]
[وَمَنْ يَبْتَغِ غَيْرَ الإِسْلاَمِ دِينًا فَلَنْ يُقْبَلَ مِنْهُ وَهُوَ فِي الآخِرَةِ مِنْ الْخَاسِرِينَ]
"And whoever seeks a religion other than Islam, it will never be accepted of him, and in the Hereafter he will be one of the losers." [Surah Aali-Imran 3:85]
[ أَسْلَمَ وَجْهَهُ ] "submits his face (himself)" he became completely Muslim and He used the "Face" as a metaphor for the body.
[بَلَى] "Yes!" is a positive affirmation. It is not used except after the denial of evidence. It is here to evidence what they denied when they said that no one other than them would enter paradise.
The singularizing [فَلَهُ أَجْرُهُ عِنْدَ رَبِّهِ] "then his reward" and the pluralizing of [وَلاَ خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلاَ هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ ] "on them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve" because مَنْ "Who" is from the Form of Generalization - with the meaning of abundance - and was assigned to singular in terms of pronunciation [مَنْ أَسْلَمَ وَجْهَهُ لِلَّهِ] "But whoever submits his face (himself) to Allah." Therefore, it is singular in terms of pronunciation and it is plural in its meaning; as such its used in the verse [فَلَهُ أَجْرُهُ عِنْدَ رَبِّهِ ] "then his reward" for word singular and [وَلاَ خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلاَ هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ] "on them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve" for the meaning of plural.
3. In the last verse, Allah (swt) shows how the Jews said about the Christians that they have no religion and how the Christians stated that the Jews have no religion as well. This occurred when the Christians of Najran came to the Messenger of Allah (saw) and met the Jews in Madeenah. They stated that despite being People of the Book and knowing from the book that a Messenger came to the Jews from Allah (swt), who was Musa AS. A Messenger came to the Christians from Allah (swt) too, who was Esa AS. However, each one of them challenged one another, placing themselves with ignorant people, who are not aware, like the Mushrikeen (pagans), who worship the idols and have no book. They used to tell the people of every religion that you are not on anything, which is a great scolding to them.
Allah (swt) concludes the verse that He Almighty will hold them accountable on the Day of Resurrection over their saying and the judgment is only for Allah (swt).
[ فَاللَّهُ يَحْكُمُ بَيْنَهُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ فِيمَا كَانُوا فِيهِ يَخْتَلِفُونَ ]
"Allah will judge between them on the Day of Resurrection about that wherein they have been differing."